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Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

Jacques Himpens, MD; Guy-Bernard Cadière, MD, PhD; Michel Bazi, MD; Michael Vouche, MD; Benjamin Cadière, MD; Giovanni Dapri, MD

Arch Surg. Published online March 21, 2011. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2011.45

Objective  To determine the long-term efficacy and safety of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for morbid obesity.

Design  Clinical assessment in the surgeon's office in 2009 (≥12 years after LAGB).

Setting  University obesity center in Brussels, Belgium.

Patients  A total of 151 consecutive patients who had benefited from LAGB between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1997, were contacted for evaluation.

Intervention  Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

Main Outcome Measures  Mortality rate, number of major and minor complications, number of corrective operations, number of patients who experienced weight loss, evolution of comorbidities, patient satisfaction, and quality of life were evaluated.

Results  The median age of patients was 50 years (range, 28-73 years). The operative mortality rate was zero. Overall, the rate of follow-up was 54.3% (82 of 151 patients). The long-term mortality rate from unrelated causes was 3.7%. Twenty-two percent of patients experienced minor complications, and 39% experienced major complications (28% experienced band erosion). Seventeen percent of patients had their procedure switched to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Overall, the (intention-to-treat) mean (SD) excess weight loss was 42.8% (33.92%) (range, 24%-143%). Thirty-six patients (51.4%) still had their band, and their mean excess weight loss was 48% (range, 38%-58%). Overall, the satisfaction index was good for 60.3% of patients. The quality-of-life score (using the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System) was neutral.

Conclusion  Based on a follow-up of 54.3% of patients, LAGB appears to result in a mean excess weight loss of 42.8% after 12 years or longer. Of 78 patients, 47 (60.3%) were satisfied, and the quality-of-life index was neutral. However, because nearly 1 out of 3 patients experienced band erosion, and nearly 50% of the patients required removal of their bands (contributing to a reoperation rate of 60%), LAGB appears to result in relatively poor long-term outcomes.

Editorial note from Dr. Callery: These results are discouraging. However, there has been an evolution in lap band design, and over the past 5 years, there have been improvements in the surgical technique for lap band implantation. The newer lap bands have a larger diameter, different balloon configuration, and are easier to unbuckle if they need surgical repositioning. Surgeons now employ the so called "pars flacida" technique rather than the "perigastric" technique used in these patients. While we still see problems with lap band slips, the incidence of erosion now seems to be much lower. While fewer patients are requiring band removal than in this series, we still await 10 year and longer results.

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Outcome after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding - 8 years experience.

* Weiner R, Blanco-Engert R, Weiner S, Matkowitz R,Schaefer L, Pomhoff I.

Krankhenhaus Sachsenhausen, Frankfurt Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, Section of Bariatric Surgery, Germany. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) has been our choice operation for morbid obesity since 1994. Despite a long list of publications about the LAGB during recent years, the evidence with regard to long-term weight loss after LAGB has been rather sparse. The outcome of the first 100 patients and the total number of 984 LAGB procedures were evaluated. METHODS: 984 consecutive patients (82.5% female) underwent LAGB. Initial body weight was 132.2 +/- 23.9 SD kg and body mass index (BMI) was 46.8 +/- 7.2 kg/m(2). Mean age was 37.9 (18-65). Retrogastric placement was performed in 577 patients up to June 1998. Thereafter, the pars flaccida to perigastric (two-step technique) was used in the following 407 patients. RESULTS: Mortality and conversion rates were 0. Follow-up of the first 100 patients has been 97% and ranges in the following years between 95% and 100% (mean 97.2%). Median follow-up of the first 100 patients who were available for follow-up was 98.9 months (8.24 years). Median follow-up of all patients was 55.5 months (range 99-1). Early complications were 1 gastric perforation after previous hiatal surgery and 1 gastric slippage (band was removed). All complications were seen during the first 100 procedures. Late complications of the first 100 cases included 17 slippages requiring reinterventions during the following years; total rate of slippage decreased later to 3.7%. Mean excess weight loss was 59.3% after 8 years, if patients with band loss are excluded. BMI dropped from 46.8 to 32.3 kg/m(2). 5 patients of the first 100 LAGB had the band removed, followed by weight gain; 3 of the 5 patients underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) with successful weight loss after the redo-surgery. 14 patients were switched to a "banded" LRYGBP and 2 patients to a LRYGBP during 2001-2002. The quality of life indices were still improved in 82% of the first 100 patients. The percentages of good and excellent results were at the highest level at 2 years after LAGB (92%). CONCLUSIONS: LAGB is safe, with a lower complication rate than other bariatric operations. Reoperations can be performed laparoscopically with low morbidity and short hospitalizations. The LAGB seems to be the basic bariatric procedure, which can be switched laparoscopically to combined bariatric procedures if treatment fails. After the learning curve of the surgeon, results are markedly improved. On the basis of 8 years long-term follow-up, it is an effective procedure.

Obes Surg. 2003 Dec;13(6):965.

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Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: 5-year results of a prospective randomized trial.

Angrisani L, Lorenzo M, Borrelli V.

BACKGROUND: To perform a prospective, randomized comparison of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS: LAGB, using the pars flaccida technique, and standard LRYGB were performed. From January 2000 to November 2000, 51 patients (mean age 34.0 +/- 8.9 years, range 20-49) were randomly allocated to undergo either LAGB (n = 27, 5 men and 22 women, mean age 33.3 years, mean weight 120 kg, mean body mass index [BMI] 43.4 kg/m(2); percentage of excess weight loss 83.8%) or LRYGB (n = 24, 4 men and 20 women, mean age 34.7, mean weight 120 kg, mean BMI 43.8 kg/m(2), percentage of excess weight loss 83.3). Data on the operative time, complications, reoperations with hospital stay, weight, BMI, percentage of excess weight loss, and co-morbidities were collected yearly. Failure was considered a BMI of >35 at 5 years postoperatively. The data were analyzed using Student's t test and Fisher's exact test, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: The mean operative time was 60 +/- 20 minutes for the LAGB group and 220 +/- 100 minutes for the LRYGB group (P <.001). One patient in the LAGB group was lost to follow-up. No patient died. Conversion to laparotomy was performed in 1 (4.2%) of 24 LRYGB patients because of a posterior leak of the gastrojejunal anastomosis. Reoperations were required in 4 (15.2%) of 26 LAGB patients, 2 because of gastric pouch dilation and 2 because of unsatisfactory weight loss. One of these patients required conversion to biliopancreatic diversion; the remaining 3 patients were on the waiting list for LRYGB. Reoperations were required in 3 (12.5%) of the 24 LRYGB patients, and each was because of a potentially lethal complication. No LAGB patient required reoperation because of an early complication. Of the 27 LAGB patients, 3 had hypertension and 1 had sleep apnea. Of the 24 LRYGB patients, 2 had hyperlipemia, 1 had hypertension, and 1 had type 2 diabetes. Five years after surgery, the diabetes, sleep apnea, and hyperlipemia had resolved. At the 5-year (range 60-66 months) follow-up visit, the LRYGB patients had significantly lower weight and BMI and a greater percentage of excess weight loss than did the LAGB patients. Weight loss failure (BMI >35 kg/m(2) at 5 yr) was observed in 9 (34.6%) of 26 LAGB patients and in 1 (4.2%) of 24 LRYGB patients (P <.001). Of the 26 patients in the LAGB group and 24 in the LRYGB group, 3 (11.5%) and 15 (62.5%) had a BMI of <30 kg/m(2), respectively (P <.001). CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that LRYGB results in better weight loss and a reduced number of failures compared with LAGB, despite the significantly longer operative time and llife-threatening complications.

Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007 Mar-Apr;3(2):127-32


A case-controlled matched-pair cohort study of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and Lap-Band patients in a single US center with three-year follow-up.

* Cottam DR, * Fisher B, et al.

BACKGROUND: Open or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is the most common operation for treatment of morbid obesity in USA. The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) has been the most common bariatric operation performed worldwide. The LapBand was approved for use in USA in July 2001. Since then, several US surgeons have adopted one procedure preferentially over the other, and several have reported patient outcomes. We added the option of the LAGB to the RYGBP in our practice in July 2001. We hypothesized that both procedures will provide similar weight loss and co-morbidity reduction if followed for a sufficient length of time. To enhance weight loss, we adopted a patient behavioral program that is easy to remember, in an attempt to ensure a reduction in caloric intake and reduce hunger regardless of the operation performed. METHODS: A case-controlled matched-pair cohort study was conducted. All patients who presented to the Surgical Weight Control Center of Las Vegas between Aug 2001 and Aug 2004 for LAGB were placed into one group, and a matched-pair RYGBP cohort group was created. Patients in the RYGBP cohort were matched for age, sex, date of surgery, and BMI. All patients were evaluated on an intention to treat basis. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. All patients were subjected to the same preoperative education regarding calorie reduction behaviors and diet change, and received the same postoperative counseling regarding long-term eating behavior and food choices. RESULTS: During this period, 208 patients underwent LAGB and 600 underwent RYGBP. Of the 208 LAGB patients, 181 had suitable open or laparoscopic RYGBP matches. The two groups were similar in terms of age, sex, BMI, and co-morbidities. There were no deaths in either group. Resolution of co-morbidities statistically favored RYGBP as did the weight loss, over the study period. CONCLUSION: When patients are matched with 3-year follow-up according to time of surgery, age, sex and BMI, LRYGBP provides superior weight and co-morbidity reduction and can be done without severe complications. However, the LAGB is an effective weight loss tool and not every patient wishes to have the LRYGBP.

Obes Surg. 2006 May;16(5):534-40. Links

Laparoscopic gastric banding: a minimally invasive surgical treatment for morbid obesity: prospective study of 500 consecutive patients.

Zinzindohoue F, et al.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early and late morbidity of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for morbid obesity and to assess the efficacy of this procedure by analyzing its results. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is considered the least invasive surgical option for morbid obesity. It is effective, with an average loss of 50% of excessive weight after 2 years of follow-up. It is potentially reversible and safe; major morbidity is low and there is no mortality. METHODS: Between April 1997 and June 2001, 500 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for morbid obesity with application of an adjustable gastric band. There were 438 women and 62 men (sex ratio = 0.14) with a mean age of 40.4 years. Preoperative mean body weight was 120.7 kg and mean body mass index (BMI) was 44.3 kg. m. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 105 minutes, 84 minutes during the last 300 operations. Mean hospital stay was 4.5 days. There were no deaths. There were 12 conversions (2.4%), 2 during the last 300 operations. Fifty-two patients (10.4%) had complications requiring an abdominal reoperation. Forty-nine underwent a reoperation for minor complications: slippage (n = 43, incisional hernias (n = 3), and reconnection of the catheter (n = 3). Three patients underwent a reoperation for major complications: gastroesophageal perforation (n = 2) and gastric necrosis (n = 1). Seven patients had pulmonary complications and 36 patients experienced minor problems related to the access port. At 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up, mean BMI decreased from 44.3 kg. m to 34.2, 32.8, and 31.9, respectively, and mean excess weight loss reached 42.8%, 52%, and 54.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a beneficial operation in terms of excessive weight loss, with an acceptably low complication rate. It can noticeably improve the quality of life in obese patients. Half of the excess body weight can be effortlessly lost within 2 years.

Ann Surg. 2003 Jan;237(1):1-9.

 

Sleep disturbance and obesity: changes following surgically induced weight loss.

Dixon JB, Schachter LM, O'Brien PE.

Department of Surgery, Monash University-Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3181, Victoria, Australia. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

BACKGROUND: Obesity causes sleep disturbance and is the most significant risk factor for sleep apnea. Only surgical methods provide substantial sustained weight loss for most severely obese subjects. OBJECTIVE: To study sleep disturbance in patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding with a commercially available product (Lap-Band). METHODS: In this study, 313 consecutive patients with severe obesity (body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters] >35) completed a preoperative sleep questionnaire and clinical assessment. One hundred twenty-three patients completed the same assessment 12 months after surgery. The characteristics of sleep disturbance and changes in responses to weight loss have been assessed. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of significantly disturbed sleep in men (59%) and women (45%), with women less likely to have had their sleep disturbance investigated. Observed sleep apnea was more common in men, but daytime sleepiness was not affected by sex. Waist circumference was the best clinical measure predicting observed sleep apnea (R = 0.36; P<.001). The group lost an average of 48% (SD, 16%) of excess weight by 12 months. There was a significant improvement in the responses to all questions at follow-up, with habitual snoring reduced to 14% (preoperative value, 82%), observed sleep apnea to 2% (preoperative value, 33%), abnormal daytime sleepiness to 4% (preoperative value, 39%), and poor sleep quality to 2% (preoperative value, 39%) (P<.001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related sleep disorders improve markedly with weight loss. Sustainable weight loss should be a primary aim in the management of severely obese patients with significant sleep disturbance, including sleep apnea. Low-risk laparoscopic obesity surgery should be considered for selected patients with this important comorbidity.

Arch Intern Med. 2001 Jan 8;161(1):102-6

Adjustable gastric banding and conventional therapy for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

Dixon JB, O'Brien PE, et. al.

Centre for Obesity Research and Education, Monash University Medical School, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

CONTEXT: Observational studies suggest that surgically induced loss of weight may be effective therapy for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine if surgically induced weight loss results in better glycemic control and less need for diabetes medications than conventional approaches to weight loss and diabetes control. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Unblinded randomized controlled trial conducted from December 2002 through December 2006 at the University Obesity Research Center in Australia, with general community recruitment to established treatment programs. Participants were 60 obese patients (BMI >30 and <40) with recently diagnosed (<2 years) type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Conventional diabetes therapy with a focus on weight loss by lifestyle change vs laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding with conventional diabetes care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Remission of type 2 diabetes (fasting glucose level <126 mg/dL [7.0 mmol/L] and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] value <6.2% while taking no glycemic therapy). Secondary measures included weight and components of the metabolic syndrome. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients enrolled, 55 (92%) completed the 2-year follow-up. Remission of type 2 diabetes was achieved by 22 (73%) in the surgical group and 4 (13%) in the conventional-therapy group. Relative risk of remission for the surgical group was 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-14.0). Surgical and conventional-therapy groups lost a mean (SD) of 20.7% (8.6%) and 1.7% (5.2%) of weight, respectively, at 2 years (P < .001). Remission of type 2 diabetes was related to weight loss (R2 = 0.46, P < .001) and lower baseline HbA1c levels (combined R2 = 0.52, P < .001). There were no serious complications in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Participants randomized to surgical therapy were more likely to achieve remission of type 2 diabetes through greater weight loss[compared to medical therapy]. These results need to be confirmed in a larger, more diverse population and have long-term efficacy assessed.

JAMA. 2008 Jan 23;299(3):316-23

Effect of Lap-Band-induced weight loss on type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

Ponce J, Haynes B, Paynter S, Fromm R, Lindsey B, Shafer A, Manahan E, Sutterfield C.

Dalton Surgical Group, P. C. and Hamilton Medical Center, Dalton, GA 30720, USA. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

BACKGROUND: Severe obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Improvement in these comorbidities after surgically-induced weight loss has been documented, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is an effective weight loss operation. METHODS: Of 840 patients who underwent Lap-Band, data are available in 402 out of 413 patients whose surgery took place at >/= 1 year ago. Preoperative and follow-up data were studied retrospectively to examine the effect of Lap-Band-induced weight loss on diabetes and hypertension. RESULTS: Of 413 patients with at least 1 year postoperative follow-up, 53 (12.8%) were taking medications for type 2 diabetes preoperatively and 189 (45.7%) were on antihypertensive medications. 66% (n=35) of diabetic patients were also hypertensive. Resolution of diabetes was observed in 66% at 1-year and 80% at 2-year follow-up. HbA1c dropped from 7.25% (5.6-11.0, n=53) preoperatively to 5.58% (5.0-6.2, n=15) at 2 years after surgery. Hypertension resolved in 59.8% and 74% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Percent excess weight loss (%EWL) was lower for diabetic patients than for our cohort population (39.2% vs 41.2% at 1 year, 46.7% vs 54.2% at 18 months, and 52.6% vs 63.3% at 2 years, respectively). Patients in whom diabetes was improved but not resolved had lower %EWL than did those whose diabetes went into remission (27.0% at 1 year and 26.5% at 2 years). Patients with the shortest duration of diabetes (<5 years) and better weight loss after surgery achieved higher resolution rates. CONCLUSIONS: Dramatic improvement in - and frequent resolution of - diabetes and hypertension have been observed as a result of weight loss after Lap-Band surgery.

Obes Surg. 2004 Nov-Dec;14(10):1335-42

Abnormal esophageal acid exposure is common in morbidly obese patients and improves after a successful Lap-band system implantation.

* Iovino P, et al.

BACKGROUND: The relation between gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and obesity is controversial. The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) procedure is effective for morbid obesity. Its indication in the presence of GERD, however, is still debated. This study aimed to investigate esophageal symptoms, motility patterns, and acid exposure in morbidly obese patients before and after LAGB placement. METHOD: For this study, 43 consecutive obese patients were investigated by a standardized symptoms questionnaire, stationary manometry and 24-h ambulatory pH-metry, and 16 patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure were reevaluated 18 months after LAGB placement. RESULTS: Symptom scores and abnormal esophageal acid exposure were found to be significantly higher, Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LOS) pressure was significantly lower in obese patients than in control subjects. After LAGB, esophageal acid exposure was significantly reduced in all but two patients, who presented with proximal of gastric pouch dilation. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of GERD in the obese population. Uncomplicated LAGB placement reduces the amount of acid in these patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure.

Surg Endosc. 2002 Nov;16(11):1631-5. Epub 2002 Jun 20.



 

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