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The following are journal articles that describe the outcomes for sleep apnea:

Sleep disturbance and obesity: changes following surgically induced weight loss.

Dixon JB, Schachter LM, O'Brien PE.

Department of Surgery, Monash University-Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3181, Victoria, Australia. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

BACKGROUND: Obesity causes sleep disturbance and is the most significant risk factor for sleep apnea. Only surgical methods provide substantial sustained weight loss for most severely obese subjects. OBJECTIVE: To study sleep disturbance in patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding with a commercially available product (Lap-Band). METHODS: In this study, 313 consecutive patients with severe obesity (body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters] >35) completed a preoperative sleep questionnaire and clinical assessment. One hundred twenty-three patients completed the same assessment 12 months after surgery. The characteristics of sleep disturbance and changes in responses to weight loss have been assessed. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of significantly disturbed sleep in men (59%) and women (45%), with women less likely to have had their sleep disturbance investigated. Observed sleep apnea was more common in men, but daytime sleepiness was not affected by sex. Waist circumference was the best clinical measure predicting observed sleep apnea (R = 0.36; P<.001). The group lost an average of 48% (SD, 16%) of excess weight by 12 months. There was a significant improvement in the responses to all questions at follow-up, with habitual snoring reduced to 14% (preoperative value, 82%), observed sleep apnea to 2% (preoperative value, 33%), abnormal daytime sleepiness to 4% (preoperative value, 39%), and poor sleep quality to 2% (preoperative value, 39%) (P<.001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related sleep disorders improve markedly with weight loss. Sustainable weight loss should be a primary aim in the management of severely obese patients with significant sleep disturbance, including sleep apnea. Low-risk laparoscopic obesity surgery should be considered for selected patients with this important comorbidity.

Arch Intern Med 2001 Jan 8;161(1):102-6

Longitudinal study of moderate weight change and sleep-disordered breathing.

Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J.

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, 502 N Walnut St, Madison, WI 53705, USA. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

CONTEXT: Excess body weight is positively associated with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), a prevalent condition in the US general population. No large study has been conducted of the longitudinal association between SDB and change in weight. OBJECTIVE: To measure the independent longitudinal association between weight change and change in SDB severity. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective cohort study conducted from July 1989 to January 2000. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred ninety randomly selected employed Wisconsin residents (mean age at baseline, 46 years; 56% male) who were evaluated twice at 4-year intervals for SDB. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage change in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; apnea events + hypopnea events per hour of sleep) and odds of developing moderate-to-severe SDB (defined by an AHI > or =15 events per hour of sleep), with respect to change in weight. RESULTS: Relative to stable weight, a 10% weight gain predicted an approximate 32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-45%) increase in the AHI. A 10% weight loss predicted a 26% (95% CI, 18%-34%) decrease in the AHI. A 10% increase in weight predicted a 6-fold (95% CI, 2.2-17.0) increase in the odds of developing moderate-to-severe SDB. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that clinical and public health programs that result in even modest weight control are likely to be effective in managing SDB and reducing new occurrence of SDB.

JAMA 2000 Dec 20;284(23):3015-21

Long-term effects of gastric surgery for treating respiratory insufficiency of obesity.

Sugerman HJ, Fairman RP, Sood RK, Engle K, Wolfe L, Kellum JM

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond 23298.

The Pickwickian syndrome can be divided into two primary breathing disorders, which can affect patients alone or in combination: sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Between 1980 and 1990, 126 patients with respiratory insufficiency underwent gastric surgery for morbid obesity, 12.5% of the entire series. These patients weighed more (164 +/- 36 vs 135 +/- 25 kg, P less than 0.0001) and were more often men (62% vs 14%, P less than 0.001) than those without pulmonary dysfunction. Sixteen had OHS alone, 65 had SAS alone, and 45 had both. Of those with OHS, 38 have been followed for 5.8 +/- 2.4 y since surgery and 29 are currently asymptomatic. In the 12 patients in whom arterial blood gases were available greater than 5 y since surgery, the PaO2 increased from 54 +/- 10 to 68 +/- 20 mm Hg (P less than 0.0001) and PaCO2 fell from 53 +/- 9 to 47 +/- 11 mm Hg (P = 0.05). Of the 110 patients with SAS, 57 were available for follow-up an average of 4.5 +/- 2.3 y since surgery and 38 were completely asymptomatic, 15 had mild SAS, and 4 had both SAS and OHS. In 40 patients with pre- and post-weight reduction sleep polysomnograms, the sleep apnea index fell from 64 +/- 39 to 26 +/- 26 (P less than 0.0001). Although respiratory insufficiency of obesity patients had a higher operative mortality than did patients without pulmonary dysfunction (2.4% vs 0.2% after gastric bypass), weight loss was associated with significant improvements in sleep apnea, arterial blood gases, pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, lung volumes, and polycythemia.

Am J Clin Nutr 1992 Feb;55(2 Suppl):597S-601S

Bariatric surgery in morbidly obese sleep-apnea patients: short- and long-term follow-up.

Charuzi I, Lavie P, Peiser J, Peled R

Department of Surgery C, Soroka Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel.


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