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The following abstracts are offered from recent medical journals. To search: PubMed.

The Gastric Bypass Operation Reduces the Progression and Mortality of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

MacDonald KG Jr, Long SD, Swanson MS, Brown BM, Morris P, Dohm GL, Pories WJ

Departments of Surgery and Biochemistry, East Carolina University School of Medicine, Greenville, N.C.

Of 232 morbidly obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus referred to East Carolina University between March 5, 1979, and January 1, 1994, 154 had a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation and 78 did not undergo surgery because of personal preference or their insurance company"s refusal to pay for the procedure. The surgical and the nonoperative (control) groups were comparable in terms of age, weight, body mass index, sex, and percentage with hypertension. The two groups were compared retrospectively to determine differences in survival and the need for medical management of their diabetes. Mean length of follow-up was 9 years in the surgical group and 6.2 years in the control group. The mean glucose levels in the surgical group fell from 187 mg/dl preoperatively and remained less than 140 mg/dl for up to 10 years of follow-up. The percentage of control subjects being treated with oral hypoglycemics or insulin increased from 56.4% at initial contact to 87.5% at last contact (P = 0.0003), whereas the percentage of surgical patients requiring medical management fell from 31.8% preoperatively to 8.6% at last contact (P = 0.0001). The mortality rate in the control group was 28% compared to 9% in the surgical group (including perioperative deaths). For every year of follow-up, patients in the control group had a 4.5% chance of dying vs. a 1.0% chance for those in the surgical group. The improvement in the mortality rate in the surgical group was primarily due to a decrease in the number of cardiovascular deaths.

J Gastrointest Surg 1997 May;1(3):213-220

Significant changes in blood pressure, glucose, and lipids with gastric bypass surgery.

Cowan GS Jr, Buffington CK

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee, Memphis 38163, USA.

The morbidly obese have a disproportionately greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease than their lean or less seriously obese counterparts. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery has been found to be highly effective in inducing, and sustaining, weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of weight loss with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (GBP) on blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and the lipid/lipoprotein status of 61 morbidly obese women and 21 men. Anthropometric and blood pressure assessments and blood samples for glucose and lipid/lipoprotein analyses were obtained before surgery and at 6 to 12 months postoperatively. By this time, morbidly obese (MO) males and females had lost 33% and 30% of their initial body weight, respectively, along with significant reductions in fasting blood glucose (p < 0.01) and systemic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Weight loss with GBP was also associated with significant reductions in the apoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and the triglyceride and cholesterol composition of these particles. There was a trend (p < 0.10) toward increased serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol following GBP, and significant (p < 0.05) improvement in HDL subfraction distribution and composition. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of GBP in inducing metabolic changes in the MO population, which may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease, diabetes, and hypertension.

World J Surg 1998 Sep;22(9):987-992

Who would have thought it? An operation proves to be the most effective therapy for adult-onset diabetes mellitus.

Pories WJ, Swanson MS, MacDonald KG, Long SB, Morris PG, Brown BM, Barakat HA, deRamon RA, Israel G, Dolezal JM, et al

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

OBJECTIVE: This report documents that the gastric bypass operation provides long-term control for obesity and diabetes. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Obesity and diabetes, both notoriously resistant to medical therapy, continue to be two of our most common and serious diseases. METHODS: Over the last 14 years, 608 morbidly obese patients underwent gastric bypass, an operation that restricts caloric intake by (1) reducing the functional stomach to approximately 30 mL, (2) delaying gastric emptying with a c. 0.8 to 1.0 cm gastric outlet, and (3) excluding foregut with a 40 to 60 cm Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy. Even though many of the patients were seriously ill, the operation was performed with a perioperative mortality and complication rate of 1.5% and 8.5%, respectively. Seventeen of the 608 patients (< 3%) were lost to follow-up. RESULTS: Gastric bypass provides durable weight control. Weights fell from a preoperative mean of 304.4 lb (range, 198 to 615 lb) to 192.2 lb (range, 104 to 466) by 1 year and were maintained at 205.4 lb (range, 107 to 512 lb) at 5 years, 206.5 lb (130 to 388 lb) at 10 years, and 204.7 lb (158 to 270 lb) at 14 years. The operation provides long-term control of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In those patients with adequate follow-up, 121 of 146 patients (82.9%) with NIDDM and 150 of 152 patients (98.7%) with glucose impairment maintained normal levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin. These antidiabetic effects appear to be due primarily to a reduction in caloric intake, suggesting that insulin resistance is a secondary protective effect rather than the initial lesion. In addition to the control of weight and NIDDM, gastric bypass also corrected or alleviated a number of other comorbidities of obesity, including hypertension, sleep apnea, cardiopulmonary failure, arthritis, and infertility. Gastric bypass is now established as an effective and safe therapy for morbid obesity and its associated morbidities. No other therapy has produced such durable and complete control of diabetes mellitus.

Ann Surg 1995 Sep;222(3):339-50; discussion 350-2

These journal articles have been selected by Dr. Charles Callery from PubMed.


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